The Blood Cold Chain, Guide to the Selection and Procurement of Equipment and Accessories

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To learn more about Copies Direct watch this short online video. Need help? How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item? If the blood bank is part of the hospital, the issues are generally simpler. The manager will seek to ensure that the input voltage line to the blood cold chain equipment. Types of voltage regulator The electronic servo regulator is composed of electronic elements, motors and transformers. The electronics monitor the input voltage.

If the input voltage is not sufficient, a signal is sent to the motor which, in turn, regulates the output voltage on the transformer. The electronic and motor functions are sensitive and,. If the blood bank is separate from the hospital facilities, i. However, they are not meant for continuous operation over a period of years and, given their light weight, can be stolen easily.

Manual versus electric automatic starting: Hand starting is far less expensive and more robust. However, automatic starting may be needed when power cuts are frequent and cold chain staff are absent on nights or weekends, since the battery will automatically take over. Hand starting is preferable for units up to 3 cylinders. For units up to 6 cylinders, it is preferable to have both options. When electric starting is selected, be sure to include a starting battery in the budget request since batteries are not normally supplied unless specified.

Spring starters are an alternative that eliminates the need for a starting battery and charging equipment. Type of cooling: Air-cooled units are easier to maintain than units with water cooling. Mounting: A separately mounted fuel tank is often preferable to an engine-mounted tank, which is subject to vibrations. Meter: A meter to record the number of hours run is a very useful feature. It helps the operator plan preventive maintenance.

Soundproofing: Soundproofed enclosures are usually expensive and could be the subject of a separate bid. Locally made brick enclosures are often a cheap.


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Estimating the size of the generator for the stand-alone blood bank All facilities or equipment to be connected to the emergency generator need to be correctly included, e. This countries need a information, plus data on standby generator temperature and altitude, are unless the mains essential if the supplier is to make current is very an accurate estimate of the size of reliable standby generator required.

2-8D sample cold chain management

To ensure accurate information and avoid a costly waste of limited resources, it may be prudent to use a qualified engineer to perform this function, especially when a new blood bank is built. Most manufacturers indicate outputs as continuous normal or standby emergency boost. Other points to consider Petrol or diesel: Most programmes opt for diesel.

Diesel units tend to be more robust and few manufacturers make petrol units large enough to support an extensive cold chain.

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Blood Cold Chain

Domestic petrol generators of the kind used in homes and shops are relatively cheap and easy to. Fuel consumption: Ask for fuel consumption figures per hour and verify the accuracy of the suppliers figures against similar models in local use. Blood packs When pre-supplied trays are not provided, it is necessary to design a system to hold the packs. The key points in designing a tray for holding blood packs are: 1.

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The material used must be strong and sturdy, e. The design must allow the blood packs to stand straight when about three quarters full. Choosing among suppliers There are many reasons for not purchasing from the lowest bidder. However, consider significant factors which reduce running costs, such as: Fuel consumption : A model which has low fuel consumption may be cheaper to run over its whole working life than one with a higher fuel consumption but a lower purchase price. Local availability of technical expertise and spare parts: Visit the local office of the Food and Agricultural Organization FAO , the fishery department or ice factory to see which models of heavy duty generators are most commonly used in your country.

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You can also check with them whether technicians are available locally to assist with maintenance if your programme doesnt have its own generator technicians. Models with RPMs of less than are rarely available. Faster running models, with RPMs of to , are found to require more maintenance, have a greater fuel consumption and wear at a higher rate. Trays and pack holders provide for 3.

When full, the tray should have easier inventory a maximum weight of 3kg to management allow for ease of carrying a single tray.


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The tray surface must be smooth to avoid any scratches to blood packs since they are made of plastic. The trays should be washable without damaging the construction material.


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  8. The trays should be moisture resistant. Plasma packs Plasma packs are different. Plasma has to stay frozen, and the best way to keep it frozen and for easier handling is for the packs to stay flat by putting the wet plasma pack in a pack holder. The tray should still have a maximum weight of 3kg to allow for easier handling. Once the packs are frozen they may be removed from these trays and packed in suitable cartons in the freezer which are properly labelled for ease of identification.

    Manufacturers of plasma derivatives prefer single packs frozen flat for ease of handling. The accessories are thus designed to fit into the shelves of the blood cold chain equipment. Trays provide for easier handling of blood products in comparison to pack holders, which may only handle one unit.

    Trays and pack holders provide for easier inventory management and should be the choice in place of putting the blood or plasma packs unsupported on the shelves. Furthermore, retrieval of packs is easier as the pack numbers are readable from a distance. Minimum order: 1 Shipping net volume: 0. A coordinated programme is needed to ensure that equipment is repaired in a timely and proper fashion and, in turn, the effectiveness of such a programme will depend on the availability and accessibility of skills, tools and spare parts.

    Equipment maintenance is part of The availability of the global Health Care Technology spare parts does Management process. The aim of not guarantee the an equipment maintenance uninterrupted and programme is to assure the proper performance maximum working life of the equipment. This can be achieved of the blood cold by addressing the two key chain equipment components of equipment maintenance, i. Preventive maintenance and the Management of repairs.

    Both components should be part of the quality management system of the blood bank, necessitating a clear policy statement on the maintenance of equipment in general and supported by Standard Operating Procedures. How to select spares for blood cold chain equipment The availability of spare parts does not guarantee the uninterrupted and proper performance of the blood cold chain equipment. It is difficult to estimate the optimal types and quantities of spares to buy and hold in stock. It will assist to know the spare parts needed for repairs and for preventive maintenance, bearing in mind that these are not mutually exclusive.

    The manufacturers list of recommended spares is invaluable in compiling an inventory, which should be carefully conserved by management. Tables 4 and 5 below may assist in the decision-making process to procure spare parts.